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Egyptian History

 

4000 BC: Egyptians trace their origins to the Mount Rwenzori range in East Africa 3150 BC Menes - Dynasty 0 
3500 BC: Egyptians invent the sail 2920 BC Dynasty 1 
3000 BC: Egyptians begin to measure time through a calendar based on the three natural cycles (the solar day, the lunar month and the solar year) 2770 BC Dynasty 2 
3100 BC: hieroglyphic writing in Egypt 2649 BC 3rd dynasty 
3000 BC: the Egyptians worship the sun 2649 - 2630 BC Sanakhte
2920 BC: pharaoh Menes/Aha conquers the north and unites most of Egypt, and builds the capital at Hiku-Ptah (Memphis), the site of the cult of Ptah (1st dynasty) 2630 - 2611 BC Djoser
2900 BC: king Djer is buried at Abydos, the seat of the cult of Osiris, lord of the Underworld and husband of Isis, and his "mastaba" becomes considered the grave of Osiris 2649 - 2643 BC Sekhemkhet
2890 BC: Hetepsekhemwy founds the second dynasty in Egypt 2643 - 2637 BC Khaba
2800 BC: Egyptians begin mining in the Sinai 2637 - 2613 BC Huni
2700 BC: Egyptians write on papyrus 2613 - 2589 BC Sneferu
2660 BC: pharaoh Kasekhemwy completes the union of north and south Egypt, and builds the first fortress on the Nile, at Buhen 2589 - 2566 BC Khufu (Cheops) 
2649 BC: Zanakht founds the 3rd dynasty 2566 - 2558 BC Djedefre
2630 BC: Zanakht dies and is succeeded by Djoser 2558 - 2532 BC Khafre (Chephren) 
2620 BC: Imhotep, high priest of Ptah at Memphis and founder of Medicine, erects a pyramid made of stone at Saqqara (overlooking Memphis) for pharaoh Djoser ("step pyramid") 2532 - 2504 BC Menkaure (Mycerinus) 
2611 BC: Djoser dies 2504 - 2500 BC Shepseskaf
2600 BC: poetry and music 2498 - 2491 BC Userkaf
2599 BC: Huni becomes pharaoh and builds the step pyramid of Maidun (completed by his successor Sneferu) 2491 - 2477 BC Sahure
2575 BC: Sneferu founds the 4th dynasty ("old kingdom") and builds in Dahshur the first pyramid with straight sides ("red pyramid") 2477 - 2467 BC Nefeirrkare
2551 BC: Sneferu dies and is succeeded by Khufu/Cheops 2467 - 2460 BC Sheseskare
2550 BC: architect Hemon builds the "great pyramid" at Giza (146m tall) for pharoah Khufu/Cheops 2460 - 2453 BC Neferefre
2520 BC: Khephren becomes pharaoh 2453 - 2422 BC Niuserre
2515 BC: the Sphinx is built for pharaoh Khephren 2422 - 2414 BC Menkauhor
2494 BC: Khephren dies 2414 - 2375 BC Djedkare
2465 BC: Userkhaf founds the 5th dynasty 2375 - 2345 BC Wenis/Unas
2356 BC: Unas becomes pharaoh 2345 - 2333 BC Teti
2350 BC: religious texts are inscribed in the burial chamber of pharoah Unas/Wenis 2332 - 2283 BC Pepi I
2323 BC: Unas is murdered and Teti founds the 6th dynasty 2283 - 2278 BC Merenre
2289 BC: Teti dies and his son Pepi I succeeds him 2278 - 2184 BC Pepi
2255 BC: Pepi I dies and is buried in a pyramid, "Man-nefer-mare", which gives Hiku-Ptah its new name Men-nefer, or Memphis 2200 BC First Intermediate Period 
2134 BC: Egypt splits into two smaller states (Memphis in the north and Thebes in the south) 2181 - 2160 BC Dynasties 7 & 8
2100 BC: Egyptian Book of the Dead 2160 - 2040 BC Dynasties 9 & 10
2061 BC: Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I becomes pharaoh in Thebes 2134 - 2117 BC Intef I
2040 BC: Nebhetepre Mentuhotep I wins the civil war, reunites Egypt, makes Thebes the capital of all Egypt, establishes the 11th dynasty ("middle kingdom") and builds the mortuary complex of Deir el Bahri 2117 - 2069 BC Intef II
2010 BC: Mentuhotep I dies and is succeeded by Mentuhotep II 2069 - 2060 BC Intef III
2000 BC: the first obelisks are erected at Heliopolis (Cairo), the site of the cult of Ra/Atum 2060 - 2010 BC Mentuhotep I
1991 BC: Amenemhet I seizes power (12th dynasty), moves the capital to Ith-Tawy (Lisht), south of Memphis, builds a huge pyramid at Its-Tway and builds the "Wall of the Prince" in the Sinai to protect Egypt from invasions 2050 BC Middle Kingdom 
1975 BC: Amenemhet builds the pyramid of Hawara with its labyrinth 2010 - 1998 BC Mentuhotep II
1962 BC: Amenemhet dies and Senusret I succeeds him, expanding the reign to the third cataract and building the fortesses at Semna and Kerma 1997 - 1991 BC Mentuhotep III
1900 BC: ceremonies are held in Abydos to honor Osiris ("Osiris' mysteries") that recount the death and resurrection of the god 1991 - 1962 BC Amenemhet I
1844 BC: Amenemhet III becomes pharaoh and builds the "Labyrinth" at Harawa 1971 - 1926 BC Senusret I
1800 BC: "The Adventures of Sinuhe" 1929 - 1895 BC Amenemhet II
1797 BC: Amenemhet III dies and his dynasty begins to decline 1897 - 1878 BC Senusret II
1640 BC: An Asian population, the Hyksos, Semitic people from Palestine, seizes power in northern Egypt (the Delta), with capital in Avaris, and introduces the horse-driven chariot (15th and 16th dynasties) 1878 - 1841 BC Senusret III
1640 BC: the Egyptians still rule on south Egypt, maintaining their capital at Thebes, and Inyotef V founds the 17th dynasty 1842 - 1797 BC Amenemhet IV
1550 BC: Ahmose I becomes pharaoh ("new kingdom", 18th dynasty) 1800 BC Second Intermediate Period
1532 BC: Ahmose I of Thebes defeats the Hyksos at Avaris and expels them from Egypt 1798 - 1786 BC Amenemhet IV
1530 BC: Work begins on the huge religious complex of Karnak to the god Amon at Luxor (Thebes) 1785 - 1782 BC Sobeknefru
1525 BC: Ahmose I dies and is succeeded by Amenhotep I 1782 - 1778 BC Wegaf
1520 BC: Amenhotep I orders the separation of mortuary temples and royal tombs at the necropolis outside Thebes 1760 BC Ameny Intef IV
1504 BC: Amenhotep I dies and is succeeded by his brother-in-law Tuthmosis I, who campaigns all the way to Mesopotamia, makes Thebes the most imposing city of the kingdom and erects the Obelisk at the Karnak temple 1750 BC Sobekhotep II
1492 BC: Tuthmosis I dies and is the first pharaoh buried in a tomb cut in the rock at the necropolis outside Thebes ("Valley of the Kings") 1747 BC Khendjer
1500 BC: the high priest of Amon in Thebes becomes more important than the high priest of Ptah in Memphis and the high priest of Ra/Atum in Heliopolis (Cairo) 1745 BC Sobekhotep III
1479 BC: Tuthmosis III becomes pharaoh and reorganizes the empire according to an efficient military bureaucracy 1741 - 1730 BC Neferhotep I
1458 BC: Tuthmosis III defeats the Mitannis and conquers Syria, the peak of Egyptian power 1730 - 1720 BC Sobekhotep IV
1450 BC: Egyptians use the sundial 1720 BC Ay
1391 BC: Amenhotep III becomes pharaoh and builds the palace complex at Malkata (near Thebes) and the temple of Amon at Luxor 1570 BC Early New Kingdom 
1353 BC: Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) becomes pharoah, married to Nefertiti, and builds the new capital at Amarna, north of Thebes, dedicated to the god Atum, banishing all other gods 1570 - 1546 BC Ahmose I
1333 BC: a child, Tutankhamon, becomes pharaoh 1551 - 1524 BC Amenhotep I
1323 BC: Tutankhamon is killed at 19 and is buried in the "Valley of the Kings" at Thebes 1524 - 1518 BC Tuthmosis I
1319 BC: general Horemheb becomes pharaoh, destroys Amarna, re-establishes order in Egypt and moves the capital back to Memphis 1518 - 1504 BC Tuthmosis II
1307 BC: Horemheb dies and his Amon high priest Ramesses I becomes pharaoh (19th dynasty) and moves the capital to his hometown of Avaris 1504 - 1450 BC Tuthmosis III
1306 BC: Ramesses I dies and is succeeded by his son Seti I 1498 - 1483 BC Hateshepsut
1300 BC: Egyptians build a canal connecting the Nile and the Red Sea 1453 - 1419 BC Amenhotep II
1290 BC: Seti I dies, having built the largest tomb in the "Valley of the Kings" and the largest monument at Abydos, and his son Ramesses II succeeds him, married to Nefertari 1419 - 1386 BC Tuthmosis IV
1275 BC: the Egyptian king Rameses II fights against the Hittite king Muwatalli at the city of Kadesh in Syria 1386 - 1349 BC Amenhotep III
1250 BC: Ramesses II transfers the capital to Pi-Ramesse in the delta, builds two temples at Abu Simbel, the Colossus at Memphis, the Hypostyle Hall of the Karnak temple at Luxor, and a huge tomb at Thebes 1370 BC Armana Revolution 
1224 BC: Ramesses II dies 1350 - 1334 BC Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) 
1196 BC: Sethnakhte founds the 20th dynasty 1336 - 1334 BC Smenkhkare
1194 BC: Sethnakhte dies and his son Ramesses III becomes pharoah and builds the temple at Medinet Habu (near Thebes) 1334 - 1325 BC Tutankhamun
1069 BC: the high priests of Amon usurp the title of king and split Egypt in two, the north with capital in Tanis (on the Mediterranean Sea) ruled by the 21st dynasty and the south with capital in Thebes ruled by the priests of Amon 1325 - 1321 BC Ay
926 BC: Palestine is invaded by pharoah Shoshenk 1321 - 1293 BC Horemheb
720 BC: the Nubian king Piankh/ Piye of Kush (Sudan) conquers the various kingdomds of Egypt and founds the Nubian dynasty 1300 BC Later New Kingdom 
710 BC: Piankh's successor Shabaka moves the capital from Napata to Thebes 1293 - 1291 BC Ramesses I
699 BC: Nubian king Tirhakah/Taharqa (son of Piankh) ascends to the throne of Egypt and moves the capital to Memphis 1291 - 1278 BC Seti I
671 BC: the Assyrians defeat Tajarqa and capture the Egyptian capital of Memphis 1279 - 1212 BC Ramesses II
664 BC: Taharqa withdraws to Napata and builds the Nuri pyramid, the first pyramid in a thousand years 1212 - 1202 BC Merneptah
605 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II leads the Babylonians to conquer Carchemish and defeat the Egyptian army 1202 - 1199 BC Amenmesses
525 BC: Cambyses of Persia conquers Egypt at the battle of Pelusium 1199 - 1193 BC Seti II
404 BC: Amyrtaios of Sais expels the Persians (28th, 29th and 30th dynasties) 1193 - 1187 BC Siptah
343 BC: the Persians conquer Egypt again (31st dynasty) 1187 - 1185 BC Twosret
332 BC: Alexander the Great conquers Egypt 1185 - 1182 BC Setnakhte
331 BC: Alexander founds Alexandria in Egypt 1182 - 1151 BC Ramesses III
323 BC: Alexander dies at Babylon and Ptolemy inherits Egypt 1151 - 1145 BC Ramesses IV
312 BC: Ptolemy's general in Syria, Seleucus Nicator, establishes a kingdom ranging from Syria in the west to India in the east and founds the Seleucid dynasty 1145 - 1141 BC Ramesses V
307 BC: Ptolemy I creates the library of Alexandria (Museum) 1141 - 1133 BC Ramesses VI
300 BC: Ptolemy I builds the Pharos of Alexandria 1133 - 1126 BC Ramesses VII
283 BC: Ptolemy dies 1133 - 1126 BC Ramesses VIII
198 BC: the Seleucids under Antiochus III conquer Palestine from the Ptolemaics 1126 - 1108 BC Ramesses IX
196 BC: the Rosetta Stone is carved in both Greek and Egyptian 1108 - 1098 BC Ramesses X
51 BC: Cleopatra VII Ptolemy becomes queen of Egypt (last of the Greek monarchs) 1098 - 1070 BC Ramesses XI
31 BC: Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony are defeated by Augustus 1080 - 1074 BC Herihor
30 BC: Cleopatra commits suicide and Egypt becomes a province of the Roman empire 1074 - 1070 BC Piankh
145 AD: the astronomer Ptolemy of Alexandria publishes the "Almagest" that summarizes the geocentric theory 1070 - 1032 BC Pinedjem I
250 AD: Diophantus of Alexandria writes the "Arithmetica", a treaty on the solution of algebraic equations and on the theory of numbers 1069 - 1043 BC Smendes I
394 AD: the last hieroglyph is inscribed at Philae 1054 - 1046 BC Masaherta
395 AD: Egypt is assigned to the eastern Roman empire (Byzantium) 1045 - 992 BC Menkheperre
600 AD: Alexandria has 200,000 inhabitants 1043 - 1039 BC Amenemnisu
641 AD: Egypt is conquered by the Arabs and forced to convert to Islam 1039 - 991 BC Psusennes I
642 AD: the Arabs destroy the library of Alexandria 993 - 984 BC Amenemope
  992 - 990 BC Smendes II
990 - 969 BC Pinedjem II
  984 - 978 BC Osorkon the Elder
978 - 959 BC Siamun
  969 - 945 BC Psusennes III
959 - 945 BC Psusennes II
  945 - 924 BC Sheshonq I
  924 - 889 BC Osorkon I
  890 BC Shesonq II
  889 - 874 BC Takelot I
  874 - 850 BC Osorkon II
  870 - 860 BC Harsiese
  850 - 825 BC Takelot II
  825 - 773 BC Sheshonq III
  818 - 793 BC Pedibastet
  793 - 787 BC Sheshonq IV
  787 - 759 BC Osorkon III
  773 - 767 BC Pami
  767 - 730 BC Sheshonq V
  764 - 757 BC Takelot III
  757 - 754 BC Rudamon
  754 - 715 BC Iuput
  747 - 716 BC Piankhi
  730 - 715 BC Osorkon IV
  727 - 720 BC Tefnakht
  720 - 715 BC Bakenrenef
  716 - 702 BC Shabaka
  702 - 690 BC Shebitku
  690 - 664 BC Tirhakah/Taharqa
  664 - 656 BC Tanatumun
  664 - 610 BC Psamtik I
  610 - 595 BC Nekau
  595 - 589 BC Psamtik II
  589 - 570 BC Wahibre
  58 - 55 BC Berenice IV
  570 - 526 BC Ahmose II
  526 - 525 BC Psamtik III
  525 - 522 BC Cambyses II
  521 - 486 BC Darius I
  51 - 30 BC Cleopatra VII
  485 - 465 BC Xerxes
  465 - 424 BC Artaxerxes
  423 - 405 BC Darius II
  405 - 359 BC Artaxerxes II
  404 - 399 BC Amyrtaeus
  399 - 393 BC Nefaarud I
  393 -380 BC Hakor
  380 - 362 BC Nakhtnebef
  362 - 360 BC Djedhor
  360 - 343 BC Nakhthoreb
  343 - 338 BC Artaxerxes III
  338 - 336 BC Arses
  336 - 332 BC Darius III
  332 - 323 BC Alexander the Great
  323 - 317 BC Philip Arrhidaeus
  317 - 305 BC Alexander IV
  305 - 282 BC Ptolemy I
  285 - 246 BC Ptolemy II
  246 - 222 BC Ptolemy III