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Roman History

753 BC: Roma (Rome) is founded by Romulus Roman emperors
750 BC: Greeks establish a colony at Cuma  
750 BC: first Etruscan inscriptions  
616 BC: Tarquinius I becomes an Etruscan king of Roma 27BC-14AD: Augustus/ Octavius
600 BC: Etruscans build the colossal tombs of Cerveteri 14-37: Tiberius
600 BC: the Forum is built 37-41: Caligula
600 BC: oldest Latin inscriptions 41-54: Claudius
578 BC: Tarquinius Priscus builds the Cloaca Maxima, the first sewer 54-68: Nero
550 BC: Servius Tullius builds city walls 68-69: Galba
494 BC: Plebeians rebel against the patricians, the beginning of the class wars 69: Otho
486 BC: The consul Spurius Cassius proposes land redistribution to the poor but the patricians murder him 69: Vitellius
474 BC: the Greeks defeat the Etruscans at Cuma 69-79: Vespasian
509 BC: the last king is expelled and Roma becomes a republic 79-81: Titus
450 BC: The Twelve Tables of the Roman law re enacted 81-96: Domitian
396 BC: Roma conquers the Etruscan city of Veii 96-98: Nerva
387 BC: the Gauls/Celts sack Roma 98-117: Trajan
376 BC: Licinius and Sextius propose laws to appease the Plebeians but the Senate postpones them indefinitely 117-38: Hadrian
367 BC: Licinius' laws are finally enacted 138-61: Antoninus Pius
366 BC: Lucius Sextius becomes the first plebeian consul 161-80: Marcus Aurelius
343 BC: Rome fights the Samnites 161-69: Lucius Aurelius Verus
341 BC: Rome conquers Campania from the Samnites with its capital of Capua 180-92: Commodus
340 BC: Rome fights the Latin League, including the Samnites 193: Pertinax
338 BC: Rome dissolves and annexes the Latin League 193: Didius Julian
326 BC: the Circus Maximus is built 193-211: Septimius Severus
326 BC: A new war begins against the Samnites 211-17: Caracalla
321 BC: At the Battle of Caudine Forks Rome wins the Second Samnite War against the Samnites 209-11: Geta
312 BC: the Via Appia is begun 217-18: Macrinus
312 BC: the first aqueduct, the Aqua Appia, is built 218-22: Elagabalus
308 BC: Roma conquers the Etruscan city of Tarquinia 222-35: Alexander Severus
300 BC: A plebeian rises to priesthood for the first time 235-38: Maximin
298 BC: Roma goes to war against the Samnites again 238: Gordian I
295 BC: Roma defeats the Samnites at Sentinum 238: Gordian II
295 BC: Roma defeats the Gauls/Celts in northern Italy 238: Pupienus
287 BC: The Lex Hortensia makes plebiscites (laws passed by the Assembly in which plebeians outnumber patricians) binding for the Senate of the patricians 238: Balbinus
283 BC: Roma establishes Gallia Cisalpina (Cisalpine Gaul) in nothern Italy 238-44: Gordian III
280 BC: Roma issues coins 244-49: Philipp "Arabs"
280 BC: Roma is defeated by Pyrrhus of Epirus at Heraclea 249-51: Decius
275 BC: Roma defeats Pyrrhus and conquers most of southern Italy 251: Hostilian
272 BC: a second aqueduct, the Anio Vetus, is built 251-53: Gallus
272 BC: The Greek colony of Tarentum surrenders to Roma and soon all the remaining Greek colonies of southern Italy follow suit 253: Aemilian
264 BC: Roma and Carthage fight the first Punic war 253-59: Valerian
264 BC: the Romans destroy the last vestiges of the Etruscan civilization (Volsinies) 259-68: Gallienus
232 BC: Gaius Flaminius enacts an agrarian law ceding land of Northern Italy to poorer classes of citizens 268-70: Claudius II
225 BC: the Gauls invade Rome 270: Quintillus
222 BC: the invading Gauls are defeated 270-75: Aurelian
221 BC: the Circus Flaminius 275-76: Tacitus
220 BC: A law forbids senators from entering into business 276: Florian
218 BC: Hannibal invades Italy and the Gauls of northern Italy ally with him 276-82: Probus
214 BC: War machines designed by Greek mathematician Archimedes save the city of Syracuse, an ally of Carthage, from a Roman naval attack 282-83: Carus
203 BC: Roma organizes the northern colonies of Placentia and Cremona in the territory of the Gauls 283-84: Numerian
202 BC: Scipio defeats Hannibal and Roma annexes Spain 283-85: Carinus
196 BC: The slaves of Etruria rebel 284-305: Diocletian
195 BC: The Celts of Spain rebel 286-305: Maximian
189 BC: Antiochus III, king of the Seleucids, is defeated at the battle of Magnesia and surrenders his possessions in Europe and Asia Minor 305-306: Constantius I
185 BC: The slaves of Apulia rebel 305-311: Galerius
184 BC: the Basilica Porcia 306-7: Severus
181 BC: Aquileia is founded on the head of the Adriatic 306-8: Maximian
181 BC: the Gauls of northern Italy are definitely subjugated 306-12: Maxentius
175 BC: the Celts of Spain are subjugated 308-13: Maximinus Daia
171 BC: The Third Macedonian War begins when Perseus attacks Roma 311-24: Licinius
167 BC: At the end of the Third Macedonian War the romans divide Macedonia into four republics 311-37: Constantine I
154 BC: The tribes of Lusitania rebel against Roma 337-40: Constantine II
151 BC: Roman troops massacre Celts in Spain 337-61: Constantius II
149 BC: Roma attacks Carthage 337-50: Constans
149 BC: Roma conquers Greece after winning the battle of Corinth (and destroying Corinth) 361-63: Julian
146 BC: Macedonia becomes a province of Roma 363-64: Jovian
146 BC: Roma destroys Carthage 364-75: Valentinian I
144 BC: The first high-level aqueduct is built 364-78: (East) Valens
139 BC: Slave revolt in Sicily with the crucifixion of 4,500 slaves ("First Servile War")) 375-83: (West) Gratian
135 BC: Second slave revolt in Sicily ("first servile war") 375-92: (West) Valentinian II
133 BC: Tiberius Gracchus enacts a law to redistribute land to the poor farmers but is assassinated with 300 of his supporters 379-95: (West) Theodosius
133 BC: Attalus III of Pergamum wills his kingdom to Roma and the whole Mediterranean Sea is under Roman control ("mare nostrum") 383-88: Maximus
128 BC: Southern France (Aquitania) becomes a provinces of Rome 392-94: Eugenius
126 BC: A law forbids Italians to emigrate to Roma 395-408: (East) Arcadius
123 BC: Tiberius's brother Gaius Gracchus enacts populist laws 395-423: (West) Honorius
121 BC: Gaius Gracchus, cornered, commits suicide and thousands of his followers are killed by the Senate 421: Constantius III
113 BC: Germanic tribes Cimbri and Teutones defeat the Romans and invade Gaul and Spain 423-25: Johannes
111 BC: Roma declares war on Numidia 408-50: (East) Theodosius II
106 BC: the Romans led by newly elected consul Marius defeat Jugurtha, king of Numidia 425-55: (West) Valentinian III
105 BC: the Teutones and the Cimbri defeat the Romans at Arausio/Orange 450-57: (East) Marcian
104 BC: Slave revolt in Sicily ("second servile war") 455: (West) Petronius
103 BC: Athenion leads a slave revolt in Sicily 455-56: (West) Avitus
102 BC: consul Gaius Marius defeats the Teutonic army at Aquae Sextiae/ Aix-en-Provence, killing about 100,000 of them 457-61: (West) Majorian
101 BC: consul Gaius Marius defeats the Cimbri at Vercelli, killing almost all of them 457-74: (East) Leo I
101 BC: Roman troops massacre Athenion's rebels 461-65: (West) Severus
100 BC: Lucius Saturninuns proposes Gracchian reforms but is killed by Marius' troops 467-72: (West) Anthemius
98 BC: Roman troops massacre Spaniards 472: (West) Olybrius
95 BC: The city of Roma expels all non-Roman citizens (except slaves) 473: (West) Glycerius
90 BC: Central and Southern Italians start the "social wars" over the issue of citizenship 473-75: (West) Julius Nepos
88 BC: Central and Southern Italians are granted full citizenship 473-74: (East) Leo II
88 BC: Sulla marches on Roma to seize power from Marius, the first time that a Roman army invades Roma 474-91: (East) Zeno
87 BC: Octavius and Cinna are elected consuls, but Octavius, defender of the optimates and ally of Sulla, is killed by Marius when he opposes Cinna, defender of the populares, along with many Sulla supporters 475-76: (West) Romulus Augustulus
82 BC: By winning the battle at Porta Collina, Sulla reconquers Roma, executes thousands of political enemies including 40 senators and becomes dictator establishing a reign of terror and enacting aristocratic laws 474-91: (East) Zeno
80 BC: Sulla retires to private life 475-76: (East) Basiliscus
74 BC: Cicero enters the senate 491-518: (East) Anastasius I
73 BC: Spartacus leads the revolt of the gladiators ("third servile war") 518-27: (East) Justin I
71 BC: Mithridates VI of Pontus is conquered by Roman general Lucius Lucullus 527-65: Justinian
71 BC: Crassus puts down Spartacus' revolt and 6,000 slaves are crucified on the Via Appea 565-78: Justin II
70 BC: Crassus and Pompey are elected consuls 578-82: Tiberius II
69 BC: Rome invades Tigranes' Armenian kingdom and edstroys its capital, Tigranocerta 582-602: Maurice
68 BC: Julius Caesar is appointed to Spain 602-10: Phocas I
67 BC: Pompey launches a campaign against pirates of Cilicia and is given dictatorial powers by the Senate 610-41: Heraclius I
64 BC: Syria becomes a Roman province under general Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius) 641: Constantine III
63 BC: Cicero thwarts Catilina's attempted coup 641: Heracleon
63 BC: Pompeus captures Jerusalem and annexes Palestine to Roma 641-68: Constans II
60 BC: Crassus, Pompey and Caesar form a "triumvirate" 668-85: Constantine IV
59 BC: Caesar is elected consul 685-95: Justinian II
57 BC: Caesar conquers all of Gaul killing tens of thousands of people 695-98: Leontius
55 BC: Caesar fights German tribes and crosses the Rhine 698-705: Tiberius II
53 BC: in the first war against Persia, Crassus is defeated and killed by the Parthians at Carrhae (Syria) 705-11: Justinian II
52 BC: Clodius, the main defender of the plebeians/the Pompeian party, is assassinated by his rival Milo 711-13: Philippicus
51 BC: Caesar crushes revolt of Vercingetorix in Gaul 713-15: Anastasius II
50 BC: Roma introduces the gold coin "aureus" 715-17: Theodosius III
49 BC: When the senate asks for his resignations, Ceasar crosses the Rubicon and invades Roma 717-41: Leo III
48 BC: Ceasar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and becomes sole dictator of Rome, calling himself "imperator" 741-75: Constantine V
47 BC: Ceasar invades Egypt and proclaims Cleopatra queen (ethnically a Macedonian Greek) 775-80: Leo IV
46 BC: Ceasar defeats an army of Pompeians and Numidians at the battle of Thapsus 780-97: Constantine VI
45 BC: Julius Caesar employs the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes to work out a new 12-month calendar (Julian calendar) 797-802: Irene
44 BC: Julius Caesar is killed. 802-11: Nicephorus I
43 BC: A triumvirate is appointed with Marcus Antonius, the partner in Caesar's fifth consulship, and Octavius, Caesar's adopted son 811: Stauracius
42 BC: The religious cult of Julius Caesar is officially instituted by the Senate 811-13: Michael I
36 BC: Rome tries to invade Persia 813-20: Leo V
36 BC: Octavius defeats Sextus Pompey and the senate appoints him tribune for life 820-29: Michael II
32 BC: Marcus Antonius divorces his wife Octavia and marries Cleopatra 829-42: Theophilus I
31 BC: Octavius defeats Marcus Antonius at the battle of Actium ending the civil wars 842-67: Michael III
30 BC: Both Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra commit suicide and Egypt is annexed to Roma 867-86: Basil I
29 BC: Octavius returns to Roma 886-912: Leo VI
27 BC: Octavius appoints himself "augustus" (the first emperor) and founds the Praetorian Guard 912-13: Alexander II
20 BC: a treaty between Roma and Persia (Parthians) fixes the boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates river (Iraq) 912-59: Constantine VII
18 BC: Augustus enacts the "Julian law of chastity and repressing adultery" 920-44: Romanus I
17 BC: the theater of Marcellus 959-63: Romanus II
13 BC: Augustus expands the borders to the region of the Danube 963-69: Nicephorus II
12 BC: Augustus becomes pontifex maximus 969-76: John I
6 BC: Jesus is born in Palestine 976-1025: Basil II
1 AD: Roma has about one million people 1025-28: Constantine VIII
2 AD: The Forum of Augustus is inaugurated 1028-50: Zoe
2 AD: Augustus, whose sons have died, chooses Tiberius as his adopted son 1028-34: Romanus III
5 AD: Roma acknowledges Cymbeline, King of the Catuvellauni, as king of Britain 1034-41: Michael IV
5 AD: Augustus' general Tiberius submits the German tribes between the Rhine and the Elbe 1041-42: Michael V
6 AD: Pannonia and Dalmatia revolt 1042-55: Constantine IX
7 AD: Augustus expands the borders to the Balkans 1055-56: Theodora
9 AD: Gothic warlord Arminius destroys the Roman army at the Teutoburg Forest and Roma withdraws the border to the Rhine 1056-57: Michael VI
9 AD: Augustus' general Tiberius defeats the Pannonians and Dalmatians 1057-59: Isaac I
12 AD: The last Etruscan inscription is carved 1059-67: Constantine X
14 AD: Augustus dies and Tiberius becomes emperor, appointing Sejanus chief of the Praetorian Guard 1068-71: Romanus IV
14 AD: five million people live in the Roman empire 1071-78: Michael VII
19 AD: Tiberius' adopted son Germanicus dies and his wife Agrippina moves to Roma with her children, including Caligula 1078-81: Nicephorus III
23 AD: Sejanus plots to murder Tiberius' son and heir Drusus 1081-1118: Alexius I
25 AD: Agrippa builds the Pantheon 1118-43: John II
26 AD: Tiberius leaves Roma, leaving Sejanus de facto running the empire 1143-80: Manuel I
31 AD: Tiberius survives a plot by Sejanus who is killed 1180-83: Alexius II
37 AD: Tiberius is murdered and the mad Caligula succeeds him, the only surviving son of Agrippina 1183-85: Andronicus I
39 AD: Caligula's sisters Agrippina and Livilla plot to murder him but fail and are exiled 1185-95: Isaac II
41 AD: Caligula is assassinated and the Praetorian Guard appoints Claudius as emperor, Germanicus' brother and Agrippina's brother-in-law, so Agrippina can return to Roma 1195-1203: Alexius III
43 AD: Claudius invades Britain 1203-4: Isaac II
46 AD: Thracia becomes a Roman province 1203-4: Alexius IV
48 AD: Claudius' wife Messalina is executed for conspiring to overthrow her husband and Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the Younger, daughter of Agrippina, who is actually the lover of his advisor Pallas 1204: Alexius V
49 AD: Agrippina and Pallas establish a reign of terror behind the back of the nominal emperor, Claudius 1204-5: (Latin) Baldwin I
50 AD: the Romans found Londinium in Britain 1205-16: (Latin) Henry
54 AD: Claudius is assassinated by Agrippina and is succeeded by Agrippina's son Nero 1216-17: (Latin) Peter of Courtenay
58 AD: the Romans conquer Armenia 1217-19: (Latin) Yolande
59 AD: Nero orders the assassination of his mother Agrippina 1219-28: (Latin) Robert of Courtenay
62 AD: The childless Nero divorces his loyal wife Octavia, who is beheaded, and marries the pregnant Poppaea while establishing a reign of terror 1228-61: (Latin) Baldwin II
64 AD: Nero sets fire to Roma and blames the Christians for it 1231-37: (Latin) John of Brienne
68 AD: Gaul and Spain rebel against Nero and Nero commits suicide rather than falling into their hands, while Spanish governor Galba is pronounced the new emperor 1204-22: (Nicean) Theodore I
69 AD: Galba is murdered by the Praetorian Guard that has been bribed by Otho but the general of the German legions, Vitellius, invades Italy and claims the empire 1222-54: (Nicean) John III
70 AD: Vitellius and his followers are defeated by Vespasian, the general of the Egyptian legions, who becomes the new emperor 1254-58: (Nicean) Theodore II
70 AD: Titus destroys Jerusalem and Jews spread in Armenia, Iraq, Iran, Arabia, Egypt, Italy, Spain and Greece 1258-61: (Nicean) John IV
77 AD: the Romans conquer Wales 1259-61: (Nicean) Michael VIII
79 AD: Vespasianus dies and is succeeded by his son Titus Flavius Vespasianus 1261-82: Michael VIII
79 AD: the Vesuvius erupts and Pompeii is buried under ash 1282-1328: Andronicus II
79 AD: the Colosseum is completed 1295-1320: Michael IX
80 AD: the Romans invade Caledonia (Scotland) 1328-41: Andronicus III
81 AD: the Arch of Titus is erected 1341-47: John V
81 AD: Titus dies and is succeeded by his brother Domitian 1347-54: John VI
84 AD: British rebels are defeated by the Romans at the battle of Mons Graupius 1355-76: John V
96 AD: Domitian is assassinated and the senate replaces him with the old Nerva, thus terminating the principle of heredity (for a century) 1376-79: Andronicus IV
97 AD: Rome forbids human sacrifice throughout the Roman empire 1379-91: John V
97 AD: Chinese general Pan Chao sends an embassy to the Roman Empire 1390: John VII
98 AD: Nerva dies and his designated heir Trajan becomes emperor 1391-1425: Manuel II
100: the city of Roma has one million inhabitants 1425-48: John VIII
106: Trajan defeats Dacia that becomes a Roman province 1448-53: Constantine
106: Trajan captures the Nabataean capital Petra (Jordan) and turns Nabataea into the province of Arabia  
107: The Roman Empire sends an embassy to India  
110: the Basilica of Trajano is completed  
112: the Forum of Trajanus  
113: The Colonna Traiana is erected  
116: Trajan conquers Mesopotamia and the Parthian capital Ctesiphon  
117: Trajan dies on his way to the Persian Gulf and Hadrian, his wife's lover, becomes emperor  
122: Hadrian's Wall is built along the northern frontier to protect from the Barbarians  
132: Jews, led by Bar-Cochba, whom some identify as the Messiah, revolt against Roma  
134: The Villa Hadriana opens  
136: Hadrian definitely crushes the Jewish resistance, forbids Jews from ever entering Jerusalem, and changes the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina  
138: Hadrian is succeeded by Antoninus Pius, who repeals Hadrian's anti-Jewish laws  
139: Hadrian's mausoleum (Castel Sant'Angelo) is built  
161: Antoninus dies and his heir designate Marcus Aurelius, a philosopher, becomes Roman emperor with Lucius Verus as co-emperor, the first time that Roma is ruled by two emperors  
162: The British Celts revolt, and Parthia declares war on Roma  
164: The plague spreads throughout the Roman empire ("Antonine plague")  
166: Lucius defeats the Parthians and destroys its capital Ctesiphon  
167: the Roman empire is attacked for the first time by barbarians (the German Quadi and Marcomanni)  
169: the Roman empire is invaded by northern Germans  
175: Aurelius defeats the German barbarians  
177: Aurelius orders the persecution of sects like the Christians and the slave girl Blandina is tortured to death  
178: Aurelius and his son Commodus fight the Third Marcomannic War against the German barbarians  
180: Aurelius dies and his teenager son Commodus succeeds him, thus restoring the heredity rule  
182: Upon discovering a conspiracy against him, Commodus establishes a new reign of terror  
185: The freed slave Cleander is the de facto ruler of Commodus' empire  
187: The Libyan-born the general of the Pannonian legions, Septimius Severus, who was raised in a Phoenician family and studied philosophy in Athens, marries Julia Domna, a descendant of the high kings of the temple of Baal in Syria  
190: In another round of executions Commodus has Cleander himself killed  
192: the Praetorian Guard kills emperor Commodus  
193: Septimius Severus seizes power, executes scores of senators, confiscates huge lands from the Italian aristocracy, and turns Roma into a military dictatorship  
194: Rome annexes Palmyra to the province of Syria  
197: Septimius Severus wins the civil war at the Battle of Lugdunum and reforms the Praetorian Guard with non-Italians  
198: Septimius Severus enters the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and annexes the northern half of Mesopotamia  
202: Septimius Severus expands the southern frontier of African Roma  
203: Christians are massacred in Carthage  
208: Septimius Severus begins a campaign in Britain  
211: Septimius Severus dies in Britain and is succeeded by his sons Lucius Septimius Bassianus (Caracalla) and Geta  
211: Septimius Severus is the last emperor to die of natural causes until 284, most of the others being murdered by the Praetorian Guard or the soldiers and all of them reigning an average of three years  
212: Caracalla murders his brother Geta and sentences to death 20,000 of Geta's followers  
212: Caracalla grants Roman citizenship on all free people who live in the Roman Empire, but only to subject them to the same taxes  
214: Caracalla murders King Abgar IX of Edessa and declares Edessa a Roman colony  
215: Caracalla massacres the inhabitants of Alexandria  
217: The Baths of Caracalla are inaugurated  
217: Caracalla, accompanied by his mother Julia, begins a campaign against the Parthians but is murdered in Edessa by his soldiers, while the head of the Praetorian Guard appoints himself emperor  
219: Julia Maesa, Julia Domna's sister, leads a Syrian army that defeats the imperial army and installs her teenager grandson Varius Avitus (Elagabalus), a Syrian priest of Baal, as emperor, but Maesa is the de facto ruler while Elagabalus worships a conical black stone representing Baal as the supreme god  
222: The Praetorian Guard murders Elagabalus and installs as emperor Elagabalus' cousin Alexianus (Alexander Severus), also a grandson of Maesa's, and another teenager, with real power in the hands of his mother Julia Mamaea, who restores Jupiter as supreme Roman god, restores the power of the senate, and restores morality by banning homosexuals and prostitutes  
230: The Sassanids invade Mesopotamia  
233: Alexander defeats the Sassanids  
235: Alexander is assassinated by soldiers loyal to Julius Maximinus, general of the Pannonian legions, the beginning of a 50-year civil war  
238: Maximinus is assassinated by his own soldiers and dies without ever having visited Roma, while the senate declares Maximus the new emperor, but he is in turn promptly assassinated by the Praetorian Guard that appoints the ten-year old Gordian III  
244: Shapur I becomes king of the Sassanids and attacks Roma , and Gordian is assassinated by his soldiers while fighting that war  
249: The emperor Philip the Arab is killed in battle by a rebel king, Decius  
250: The emperor Decius orders the first empire-wide persecution of Christians that also kills the bishop of Roma  
251: Decius is killed in battle by the Goths  
253: Both the emperor Gallus and his successor Aemilianus are killed by their soldiers and are succeeded by the old Valerian who appoints his son Gallienus as co-emperor in the west  
253: Gallienus becomes emperor but 30 "tyrants" carved out their own kingdoms around the empire  
255: The Goths invade Macedonia, Dalmatia and Asia Minor  
256: the Persians/Sassanids defeat the Romans and conquer Dura Europus in Mesopotamia  
257: Valerian reconquers Syria from the Sassanids  
258: The Sassanids conquer Armenia  
258: Valerian persecutes Christians and even the pope, Sixtus II, is executed  
258: Postumus declares the independence of Gaul  
260: Valerian is captured by the Sassanid king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, the first Roman emperor to become a prisoner of war  
260: The plague spreads thoughout the Roman empire, decimating its population  
261: Gallienus forbids aristocrats from serving in the army and relaxes the laws against Christianity  
261: The king of Palmyra, Odenathus, defeats the Sassanids on behalf of Roma, annexing Arabia, Anatolia and Armenia  
263: The Goths raid Ephesus and destroy the Temple of Arthemis, one of the seven wonders  
266: Odenathus is assassinated and his wife Zenobia becomes the new ruler of Syria  
267: Goths raid the Greek cities  
268: Gallienus is assassinated by his own officers  
269: The Goths raid the Greek cities for a second time but are defeated by Roman emperor Claudius II  
269: Zenobia conquers Egypt expelling the Roman goernor  
270: Claudius II dies of the plague and the army chooses Aurelian as the new emperor  
271: The emperor Aurelian defeats the invading Germans  
273: The emperor Aurelian destroys the rebellious city of Palmyra in Zenobia's kingdom  
274: The emperor Aurelian defeats Zenobia and brings her as a hostage to Roma, reuniting the eastern empire  
274: The emperor Aurelian defeats the rebellious Gauls  
275: Aurelian is killed by his officers and is succeeded by the old Tacitus who dies within months  
276: Probus restores peace by repelling the last barbarians on Roman soil  
282: Probus is assassinated by his soldiers  
284: Diocletian, the son of a Dalmatian slave, becomes emperor but rules from Nicomedia in the East  
285: Diocletian, proclaiming himself the human manifestation of Jupiter, reunites the empire and ends the 50-year civil war  
286: Diocletian appoints Maximian to rule the West, with capital in Milano  
293: Diocletian institutes the "tetrarchy" under which each emperor choose his successor ahead of time, and Diocletian chooses Galerius while Maximian chooses Constantius Chlorus  
295: The Sassanids invade the Eastern empire again  
299: The Sassanids surrender to Roman emperor Galerius, who annexes Armenia, Georgia and Upper Mesopotamia  
300: the population of the Roman Empire is 60 million (about 15 million Christians)  
303: Diocletian and Maximian order a general persecution of the Christians, including the destruction of all churches (1,500 Christians will be killed in eight years)  
303: the thermae of Diocletian are built  
305: Diocletian and Maximian abdicate in favor of Galerius and Constantius, but civil war erupts again  
306: Constantius dies and his son Flavius Valerius Constantinus (Constantine) is acclaimed by the troops as new vice-emperor of Galerius, while the Praetorian Guard appoints Maximian's son Maxentius emperor instead of Galerius' choice Severus  
308: Galerius appoints another emperor, Licinius  
311: Galerius relaxes the ban on Christianity  
311: Galerius dies leaving Maxentius and Constantine to fight for the throne of the West  
312: Constantine defeats Maxentius, becomes emperor of the West and disbands the Praetorian Guard  
313: Constantine's ally Licinius defeats Maxentius' ally Maximinus and becomes co-emperor in the East  
313: Constantine ends the persecution of the Christians (edict of Milano)  
313: the Basilica of Maxentius is completed  
314: Constantine defeats Licinius and obtains all Roman Europe except Thracia, while Licinius keeps Africa and Asia  
323: Constantine defeats Licinius again and becomes the sole emperor  
324: Constantine I founds a new city, Constantinople (Byzantium)  
326: Constantine has his son Crispus and his wife Fausta Flavia Maxima executed  
330: Constantine I moves the capital of the Roman empire to Constantinople (Byzantium)  
337: Constantine dies, and his sons split the empire: Constantine II (Spain, Britain, Gaul), Constans I (Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedon, Achaea) and Constantius II (the East)  
356: Roma has 28 libraries, 10 basilicas, 11 public baths, two amphitheaters, three theaters, two circuses, 19 aqueducts, 11 squares, 1,352 fountains, 46,602 insulae (city blocks)  
359: Constantinople becomes the capital of the Roman empire  
360: pagan (Mithraist) general Julian (the "apostate") defeats an invasion of Barbarians and is declared emperor by his German troops  
363: Julian dies attempting to invade the Sassanid kingdom of Persia, which recaptures Nisibis and Armenia, and general Valentinian becomes emperor  
363: an earthquake destroys Petra  
364: Valentinian delegates Valens as emperor of the East  
376: Valens allows Visigoths to settle within the empire  
378: The Visigoths defeat the Roman army at Hadrianopolis/Adrianople  
380: Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole religion of the Roman Empire  
393: Theodosius forbids the Olympic Games because pagans and shuts down the temple of Zeus at Olympia  
395: Theodosius divides the Roman empire in the Western and Eastern Empires, with Milano and Constantinople as their capitals  
402: the western Roman empire moves the capital from Milano to Ravenna  
406: Barbarians invade France from the north  
410: the Visigots sack Roma  
410: Roma withdraws from Britannia  
418: the emperor grants Wallia's Visigoths to settle in Aquitaine (Atlantic coast of France)  
425: the eastern emperor Theodosius II installs Valentinian III as emperor of the west  
427: Gensenric's Vandals crosses the strait of Gibraltar and lands in Africa  
443: the emperor grants Burgundi to settle in Savoy  
450: Theodosius II dies and Marcian succeeds him, the first Roman emperor to be crowned by a religious leader (the patriarch of Constantinople)  
452: the Huns invade Italy  
455: the Vandals sack Roma  
476: Odoacer, a mercenary in the service of Roma, leader of the Germanic soldiers in the Roman army, deposes the western Roman emperor and thereby terminates the western Roman empire  
488: emperor Zeno sends Theodoric's Ostrogoths (still settled in Pannonia) to conquer Italy  
493: the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric conquer Italy  
500: Roma's population has declined to less than 100,000 people  
526: Antioch in Syria is destroyed by an earthquake  
527: Justinian becomes eastern Roman emperor and decides to reconquer Italy  
527: Byzantium enforces anti-Jewish laws and the Jews all but disappear from the eastern Roman Empire  
529: Roman emperor Justinian shuts down the Academia of Plato  
532: Riots in Constantinople kill 30,000 people and almost dethrone Justinian  
533: Justinian's code of law ("Corpus Juri Civilis") is published  
534: Justinian's general Belisarius destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals and reconquers southern Spain and northern Africa  
536: the Ostrogoths surrender and Belisarius reconquers Rome (beginning of the Barbar wars in Italy)  
537: Justinian's general Belisarius deposes pope Silverius and replaces him with pope Vigilius  
537: Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople  
540: Justinian's general Belisarius takes Ravenna from the last Ostrogothic resistance and thus reconquers Italy to the empire  
542: the plague decimates the Empire  
546: Visigothic rebels led by Totila sack Roma  
551: imperial troops reconquer Rome  
552: Nestorian monks smuggle silkworm eggs from China to Byzanthium  
552: End of Ostrogothic resistance in Italy  
554: Rome is reduced to a camp of about 30,000 people, while Constantinople has about one million people  
554: the new king of the Visigoths, Athanagild, accepts the emperor's sovereignity over Spain  
554: the empire reorganizes Italy as an imperial province (end of the Barbar wars)  
565: Justinian dies  
568: Alboin's Lombards invade northern Italy  
600: Constantinople has 500,000 inhabitants  
602: the Persians (Sassanids) attack the eastern Roman empire in Asia Minor  
610: Heraclius I (son of the Orthodox bishop of Africa) overthrows the tyrant Phocas, becomes emperor and establishes Greek as the official language  
614: the Persians (Sassanids) raid Jerusalem and destroy its churches  
619: the Persians capture Egypt  
621: the Visigoths reconquer all of Spain from the Roman empire  
626: the Sassanids besiege Constantinople  
627: the Sassanid king Khusrau II is defeated by Roman emperor Heraclius at Niniveh  
628: the Romans retake Syria from the Sassanids  
636: Arabs invade Syria and Palestine  
639: the Arabs invade the southern provinces of the Empire  
673: the Arabs besiege Constantinople  
714: the Arabs besiege Constantinople again  
717: Leo III becomes emperor  
718: Leo III defeats the Arabs that are besieging Constantinople  
726: Emperor Leo III orders the destruction of all icons (iconoclasm)  
730: Germanus is deposed and replaced by the iconoclast Athanasius  
739: emperor Leo III issues the Ecloga that introduces Christian principles into law  
800: Charlemagne, king of the Franks, is crowned emperor by Pope Leo III and founds the Holy Roman Empire  
811: the eastern Roman emperor recognized Charlemagne as emperor of Roma  
812: a peace treaty between Charlemagne and the Eastern Roman Empire surrenders Venezia to the Eastern empire but grants Venezia the right to trade with the Holy Roman Empire  
813: an Armenian general becomes eastern Roman emperor Leo V  
840: Basil's fleet retakes Bari from the Muslims  
843: Empress Theodora allows the worship of icons to be restored  
846: the city of Roma has 17,000 inhabitants  
860: the Rus attack Constantinople  
867: Basil I becomes the Byzantine emperor and founds the Macedonian dynasty  
879: Basil I defeats the Arabs and reconquers Cappadocia  
896: Symeon of Bulgaria defeats the Byzantine army for the first time  
913: Alexander II dies and is succeeded by his seven-year old nephew Constantine VII but real power is wielded by empress mother Zoe  
919: Admiral Romanos Lekapenos/ Romanus Lacapenus seizes power and marries his daughter Helen to the 14-year old Constantine VII, who devotes himself to literature and art  
922: Symeon of Bulgaria defeats the Byzantine army for the fourth and last time  
934: Magyars raid Constantinople  
945: Romanos Lekapenos is deposed by his own children and Constantine VII assumes real power  
968: Nicephorus II defeats the Arabs and reconquers Syria  
969: Nicephorus II defeats the Bulgars  
976: Basil II becomes the Byzantine emperor  
1018: Basil II annexes Bulgaria and the Byzantine empire reaches its zenith  
1025: Basil II dies  
1054: The patriarch of Constantinople and the pope in Roma excommunicate each other (the Great Schism)  
1057: end of the Macedonian dynasty  
1064: the Seljuks invade Armenia  
1071: the Byzantine army of Romanus IV Diogenes is defeated by the Seljuks at Manzikert in Armenia, who establish a sultanate in Anatolia  
1071: Normans led by Robert Guiscard conquer southern Italy from the eastern Roman empire  
1081: Alexius I Komnenos establishes the Komnenos dynasty  
1099: the first Crusade captures Jerusalem  
1187: Saladin defeats the crusaders  
1195: Alexius III deposes his brother and becomes the new emperor  
1197: Alexius III imposes taxes and melts the gold of the imperial tombs to pay the tribute to Frederick Barbarossa, causing anger against the Latin dynasty among the Greek population  
1204: the Crusaders, led by the Doge of Venezia, sack Constantinople, expel the Greek emperor Alexius III and set up a Latin kingdom, led by Baldwin I of the Flanders, and Venezia acquires territories in the Mediterranean and Black Seas  
1204: Theodore I Lascaris, son-in-law od Alexius III, flees from Constantinople to Nicaea (Bithynia), where he founds a the empire, whereas Alexius founds the empire of Trebizond further east  
1208: Theodore I Lascaris is crowned emperor by the patriarch and Nicaea becomes a rival to Constantinople for legitimate capital of the empire  
1211: Nicaea emperor Theodore I Lascaris conquers most of Anatolia after defeating an alliance of Seljuqs of Rum and Latin kingdom of Constantinople near Antioch  
1261: Constantinople is liberated by the Nicaean emperor Michael VIII Paleologus and Greek becomes the official language of the ever smaller eastern Roman empire  
1291: the Moslems expel the Crusaders from the Middle East  
1345: Serbia defeats the eastern Roman empire and annexes Macedonia and Thrace  
1347: the plague (Black Death) strikes Constantinople and it will kill half the population of the city  
1348: Serbia defeats the eastern Roman empire and annexes Thessaly and Epirus  
1453: the Ottoman Turks under Mehmet II capture Constantinople  
1461: the Ottomans conquer the empire of Trebizond, the last Greek state